Cross-Site Publications:

  1. Higgins, J., Wang, X., Barbieri, E., Mack, J., Caplan, D., Kiran, S., Rapp, B., Thompson, C.K., Zinbarg, R., & Parrish, T. (submitted). Reliability of BOLD signals in chronic stroke-induced aphasia.
  2. Kiran, S., & Thompson, C.K. (2019). Neuroplasticity of Language Networks in Aphasia: Advances, Updates, and Future Challenges. Frontiers in Neurology: Stroke, 10, 295. PDF
  3. Thompson, C.K., Walenski, M., Chen, Y.F., Caplan, D., Kiran, S., Rapp, B., Grunewald, K., Nunez, M., Zinbarg, R.E., & Parrish, T.B. (2017). Intrahemispheric perfusion in chronic stroke-induced aphasia. Neural Plasticity, 2017, 1-15PMCID: PMC5357554. DOI:10.1155/2017/2361691. PDF
  4. Lukic, S., Barbieri, E., Wang, X., Caplan, D., Kiran, S., Rapp, B., Parrish, T., & Thompson, C. K. (2017). Right Hemisphere Grey Matter Volume and Language Recovery in Stroke Aphasia. Neural Plasticity, 2017, 1-14. PMCID: PMC5441122. DOI: 10.1155/2017/5601509. PDF
  5. Crinion, J., Holland, A.L., Copland, D.A., Thompson, C.K., & Hillis, A.E. (2013). Neuroimaging in aphasia treatment research: Quantifying brain lesions after stroke. Neuroimage, 73, 208-214. PMCID: PMC3534842. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.07.044. PDF
  6. Kiran, S., Ansaldo, A., Bastiaanse, R., Cherney, L.R., Howard, D., Faroqi-Shah, Y., Meinzer, M., & Thompson, C.K. (2013). Neuroimaging in aphasia treatment research: Standards for establishing the effects of treatment. Neuroimage, 76, 428-435. PMCID: PMC3552150. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.10.011. PDF
  7. Meinzer, M., Beeson, P., Cappa, S., Crinion, J, Kiran, S., Saur, D., Parrish, T., Crosson, B., & Thompson, C.K. (2013). Neuroimaging in aphasia treatment research: Consensus and practical guidelines for data analysis. Neuroimage, 73, 215-224. PMCID: PMC3416913. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.02.058. PDF
  8. Rapp, B., Caplan, D., Edwards, S., Visch-Brink, E., & Thompson, C.K. (2013). Neuroimaging in aphasia treatment research: Issues of experimental design for relating cognitive to neural changes. Neuroimage, 73, 200-207. PMCID: PMC3600065. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.09.007. 

The Neurobiology of Recovery of Sentence Processing in Agrammatic Aphasia
Northwestern University


  1. Barbieri, E., Mack, J., Chiappetta, B., Europa, E., & Thompson, C.K. (in press). Recovery of offline and online sentence processing in aphasia: Language and domain-general network neuroplasticity. Cortex.
  2. Lukic, S., Meltzer-Asscher, A., Higgins, J., Parrish, T. B., & Thompson, C.K. (2019). Neurocognitive correlates of ambiguous verb processing: Single versus separate lexical entries. Brain and Language. PMID: 31103888. DOI: PDF
  3. *Europa, E., Kiran, S., Gitelman, D., & Thompson, C.K. (2019). Neural Connectivity in Syntactic Movement Processing. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 13, 1-15. PDF
  4. Barbieri, E., Brambilla, I., Thompson, C.K., & Luzzatti, C. (2019). Verb and sentence processing patterns in healthy Italian participants: insight from the Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS). Journal of Communication Disorders. PDF
  5. Walenski, M., Europa, E., Caplan, D., & Thompson, C.K. (2019). Neural networks for sentence comprehension and production: An ALE‐based meta‐analysis of neuroimaging studies. Human Brain Mapping. PDF
  6. Hsu, C., & Thompson, C.K. (2018). Manual Versus Automated Narrative Analysis of Agrammatic Production Patterns: The Northwestern Narrative Language Analysis and Computerized Language Analysis. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 61(2). DOI:10.1044/2017_JSLHR-L-17-0185. PDF
  7. Mack, J.E., Nerantzini, M., & Thompson, C.K. (2017). Recovery of Sentence Production Processes Following Language Treatment in Aphasia: Evidence from Eyetracking. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 2017(11). PMCID: PMC5346573 DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00101. PDF
  8. Mack, J. E. & Thompson, C. K. (2017). Recovery of online sentence processing in aphasia: Eye movement changes resulting from Treatment of Underlying Forms. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 1-17. PMCID: PMC Journal – In Process. DOI: 10.1044/2016_JSLHR-L-16-0108. PDF
  9. Schuchard, J., & Thompson, C.K. (2017). Sequential learning in individuals with agrammatic aphasia: evidence from artificial grammar learning. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 1-14. PMCID: PMC5499680. DOI: 10.1080/20445911.2017.1293065. PDF
  10. Cho-Reyes, S., Mack, J., & Thompson, C.K. (2016). Grammatical Encoding and Learning in Agrammatic Aphasia: Evidence from Structural Priming. Journal of Memory and Language. PMCID: PMC5600488. NIHMS845653. DOI:10.1016/j.jml.2016.02.004. PDF
  11. Mack, J.E., Zu-Sern Wei, A., Gutierrez, S., & Thompson, C.K. (2016). Tracking sentence comprehension: Test-retest reliability in people with aphasia and unimpaired adults. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 40, 98-111. PMCID: PMC5113948. DOI: 10.1016/j.jneuroling.2016.06.001. PDF
  12. Schuchard, J., Nerantzini, M., & Thompson, C.K. (2016). Implicit learning and implicit treatment outcomes in individuals with aphasia. Aphasiology. PMCID: PMC5461970. DOI:1080/02687038.2016.1147526. PDF
  13. Wang, H., & Thompson, C.K. (2016). Assessing Syntactic Deficits in Chinese Broca’s aphasia using the Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences-Chinese (NAVS-C). Aphasiology, 30(7), 815-840. PMC4955954. DOI:10.1080/02687038.2015.1111995. PDF
  14. Lee, J., Yoshida, M., & Thompson, C.K. (2015). Grammatical planning units during real-time sentence production in agrammatic aphasia and healthy speakers. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. PMID: 25908309. DOI:10.1044/2015_JSLHR-L-14-0250. PDF
  15. Riley, E., & Thompson, C.K. (2015). Training Pseudoword Reading in Acquired Dyslexia: A Phonological Complexity Approach. Aphasiology, 29(2), 129–150. PMCID: PMC4467909. DOI: 1080/02687038.2014.955389. PDF
  16. Meltzer-Asscher, A., Barbieri, E., Mack, J., & Thompson, C.K. (2015). How the brain processes different dimensions of argument structure complexity: Evidence from fMRI. Brain and Language, 142, 65-75. PMCID: PMC4336802. NIHMSID 653537. DOI:10.1016/j.bandl.2014.12.005. PDF
  17. Thompson, C.K. (2015). Establishing the effects of treatment for aphasia using single-subject-controlled experimental designs. Aphasiology, 29(5), 588-597. PMCID: PMC1847620. DOI:10.1080/02687038.2014.987043. PDF
  18. Schuchard, J., & Thompson, C.K. (2014). Implicit and explicit learning in individuals with agrammatic aphasia. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 43(3), 209-224. PMCID: PMC3766481. DOI:10.1007/s10936-013-9248-4. PDF
  19. Mack, J.E., Meltzer-Asscher, A., Barbieri, E., & Thompson, C.K. (2013). Neural correlates of processing passive sentences. Brain Sciences. 3(3), 1198-1214. PMCID: PMC4061884. DOI:10.3390/brainsci3031198. PDF
  20. Wang, H., Yoshida, M., & Thompson, C.K. (2013). Parallel functional category deficits in clauses and nominal phrases: The case of English agrammatism. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 27(1), 75 – 102. PMC4569143. DOI:

Imaging and Data Analysis Core
Northwestern University


  1. Wang, B., Wang, X., Wang, Y., Katsaggelos, A., & Parrish T.B. (Submitted). An automated segmentation pipeline for chronic stroke lesion with new evaluation metrics. Neuroimage Clinical.
  2. Ingo, C., Sui, Y., Chen, Y.F., Parrish, T.B., Webb, A.G., & Ronen, I. (2015). Parsimonious continuous time random walk models and kurtosis for diffusion in magnetic resonance of biological tissue. Frontiers in Biomedical Physics 3(11). PMCID: PMC5365033. DOI: 10.3389/fphy.2015.00011. PDF
  3. Alpert, K., Kogan, A., Parrish, T.B., Marcus, D., & Wang, L. (2015). The Northwestern University Neuroimaging Data Archive (NUNDA). Neuroimage, 124 (B), 1131-6. PMCID: PMC4651782. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.05.060. PDF
  4. Ingo, C., Magin, R.L., & Parrish, T.B. (2014). New insights into the fractional order diffusion equation using entropy and kurtosis. Entropy, 16(11), 5838-5852. PMCID: PMC5365032. DOI: 3390/e16115838. PDF

The Neurobiology of Recovery of Spoken Naming in Aphasia
Boston University/Massachusetts General Hospital


  1. Gilmore, N., Johnson, J.P., Meier, E.L., & S. (under revision). Non-linguistic cognitive factors predict treatment-induced recovery in chronic post-stroke aphasia. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation.
  2. Gilmore, N., Meier, E. L., Johnson, J. P., & Kiran, S. (2018). Typicality-based semantic treatment for anomia results in multiple levels of generalization. Neuropsychological rehabilitation, 1-27.
  3. Meier, E. L., Johnson, J. P., & Kiran, S. (2018). Frontotemporal effective connectivity during semantic feature judgments in patients with aphasia versus healthy controls. Cortex. PDF
  4. Meier, E. L., Johnson, J. P., Villard, S., & Kiran, S. (2017). Does Naming Therapy Make Ordering in a Restaurant Easier? Dynamics of Co-Occurring Change in Cognitive-Linguistic and Functional Communication Skills in Aphasia. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 26(2), 266-280. PMCID: PMC5544360. DOI:10.1044/2016_AJSLP-16-0028 PDF
  5. Meier, E. L., Kapse, K. J., & Kiran, S. (2016). The relationship between frontotemporal effective connectivity during picture naming, behavior, and preserved cortical tissue in chronic aphasia. Hum. Neurosci., 10, 109. PMCID: PMC4792868. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2016.00109. PDF
  6. Meier, E. L., Lo, M., & Kiran, S. (2016). Understanding semantic and phonological processing deficits in adults with aphasia: Effects of category and typicality. Aphasiology, 30(6), 719-749. PMCID: PMC4811611. DOI: 10.1080/02687038.2015.1081137. PDF
  7. Sims, J., Kapse, K., Glynn, P., Sandberg, C., & Kiran, S. (2016). The Relationships between the Amount of Spared Tissue, Percent Signal Change, and Accuracy in Semantic Processing in Aphasia. PubMed PMID: 26775192. PDF
  8. Kiran, S., Meier, E., Kapse, K., & Glynn, P. (2015). Changes in task-based effective connectivity in language networks following rehabilitation in post-stroke patients with aphasia. Hum. Neurosci., 9, 316.
    PMCID: PMC4460429. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2015.00316. PDF

The Neurobiology of Recovery of Written Naming in Acquired Dysgraphia
Johns Hopkins University


  1. Purcell, J.J., Wiley, R.W., and Rapp, B. (under review). Increased differentiation of neural representations supports post-stroke language recovery.
  2. Ellenblum, G., Purcell, J., Song, S-W, & Rapp, B. (revision invited). Understanding orthographic processing networks: Evidence from resting state fMRI. Cognitive Neuroscience.
  3. Tao, Y. & Rapp, B. (under review). The role of modularity in the neuroplastic changes that support recovery from brain lesions.
  4. Rapp, B. (in press).  Disgrafia: Bases neurales y cognitivas.  In, E. Labos & J.L. Nespoulous (Eds.), Neuropsicologinuistica:  Recorrido clinic, elementos conceptuales y perspectivas.  Editorial Akadia, Buenos Aires.
  5. Rapp, B. (in press). Writing research in the 21st  In, C. Perret and T. Olive (Eds.), Writing words: Psychological and neuropsychological approaches.   Leiden: Brill.
  6. Purcell, J. & Rapp, B. (in press).  Disorders of written expression. Wenzel, A. (Ed.). In, Encyclopedia of Abnormal and Clinical Psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
  7. Tsapkini, K., Webster, K.T., Ficek, B.N., Desmond, J.E., Onyike, C.U., Rapp, B., Frangakis, C.E., Hillis, A.E. (2018). Electrical brain-stimulation in different variants of primary progressive aphasia: a randomized clinical trial. Alzheimer’s & Dementia; Translational Research and Clinical Interventions. PDF
  8. Rofes, A., Mandonnet, E., de Aguiar, V., Rapp, B., Tsapkini, K., Miceli, G. (2018). Language processing from the perspective of electrical stimulation mapping. Cognitive Neuropsychology. PDF
  9. Breining, B., Nozari, B & Rapp, B. (2018). Learning in complex, multi-component cognitive systems: Different learning challenges within the same system.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition. 
  10. Wiley, R. & Rapp, B. (2018). Statistical analysis in small-n designs: Using linear mixed-effects modeling for evaluating intervention effectiveness. Aphasiology, 1-30. PDF
  11. Purcell, J. J., & Rapp, B. (2018). Local response heterogeneity indexes experience-based neural differentiation in reading. NeuroImage183, 200-211. PDF
  12. Tsapkini, K., Webster, K., Ficek, B. N., Desmond, J., Onyike, C., Rapp, B., … & Hillis, A. E. (2017). Transcranial direct current stimulation in primary progressive aphasia: Whom does it help?. Brain Stimulation: Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research in Neuromodulation10(4), e40. PDF
  13. Rapp, B. & McCloskey, M. (2017). Developmental Dysgraphia and the Acquisition of Spelling and Writing. Special Issue of Cognitive Neuropsychology. 
  14. Hepner, C., McCloskey, M., & Rapp, B. (2017). Do reading and spelling share orthographic representations? Evidence from developmental dysgraphia. Cognitive neuropsychology34(3-4), 119-143. PDF
  15. McCloskey, M., & Rapp, B. (2017). Developmental dysgraphia: An overview and framework for research. Cognitive Neuropsychology34(3-4), 65-82. PDF
  16. Breining, B. & Rapp, B. (2017; online). Investigating the mechanisms of written word production:  Insights from the written blocked cyclic naming paradigm.  Reading and Writing, 1-30. DOI: 10.1007/s11145-017-9742-4 PDF
  17. Rothlein, D. & Rapp, B. (2017). The role of allograph representations in font-invariant letter identification. Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Human Perception and Performance, 43(7), 1411-1429. PMCID: PMC5481478. DOI: 10.1037/xhp0000384 PDF
  18. Nozari, N., Freund, M. Breining, B., Rapp, B. & Gordon, B. (2016). Cognitive control during selection and repair in word production. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 31, 7, 886-903. PMCID: PMC5268164. DOI: 10.1080/23273798.2016.1157194 PDF
  19. Wiley, R., Wilson, C. & Rapp, B. (2016). The effects of alphabet and expertise on letter perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Human Perception and Performance, 42 (8), 1186-120. PMCID: PMC4980158. DOI: 10.1037/xhp0000213. PDF
  20. Rapp, B., Purcell, J., Hillis, A. B. Capasso, R., & Miceli, G. (2016). Neural bases of orthographic long-term memory and working memory in dysgraphia. Brain, 139(pt2), 588-604. PMCID: PMC4805091. DOI: 10.1093/brain/awv348 PDF
  21. Nickels, L., Rapp, B., & Kohnen, S. (2015). Challenges in the use of treatment to investigate cognition. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 32 (3/4), 91-104. PMCID: PMC4746100. DOI: 10.1080/02643294.2015.1056652 PDF
  22. Breining, B., Nozari, B. & Rapp, B. (2015). Does segmental overlap help or hurt? Evidence from blocked cyclic naming in spoken and written production.  Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 23 920, 500-506. PMCID: PMC4715795. DOI: 10.3758/s13423-015-0900-x. PDF
  23. Rapp, B., Fischer-Baum, S. & Miozzo, M. (2015). Modality and morphology:  What we write may not be what we say.  Psychological Science. PMCID: PMC4418216. DOI: 10.1177/0956797615573520. PDF
  24. Purcell, J., Shea, J. & Rapp, B. (2014). Beyond the VWFA: The semantics-orthography interface in spelling and reading.  Cognitive Neuropsychology, 31, 5-6, 482-510. PMCID: PMC4108522. DOI: 10.1080/02643294.2014.909399 PDF
  25. Fischer-Baum, S. & Rapp, B. (2014).The analysis of perseverations in acquired dysgraphia reveals the internal structure of orthographic representations.  Cognitive Neuropsychology, 31(3), 237-265. PMCID: PMC4016131. NIHMSID: NIHMS554792. DOI: 10.1080/02643294.2014.880676. PDF
  26. Rothlein, D. & Rapp, B. (2014).The similarity structure of distributed neural responses reveals the neural representations of letters.  NeuroImage, 89, 331-344. PMCID: PMC3980450. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.11.054 PDF
  27. Tainturier, M.J., Bosse, M-L, Roberts, D.J., Valdois, S. & Rapp, B. (2013). Lexical neighbourhood effects in pseudoword spelling.  Frontiers in Cognitive Science, 28 November 2013. PMCID: PMC3842689. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00862. PDF
  28. Purcell, J. & Rapp, B. (2013). Identifying functional reorganization of spelling networks:  An individual peak probability comparison approach. Frontiers in Cognitive Science, 25 December 2013. PMCID: PMC3872307. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00964. PDF
  29. Dufor, O. & Rapp, B. (2013). Letter representations in writing:  an fMRI adaptation approach.  Frontiers in Cognitive Science, 4, 1-14. PMCID: PMC3809555. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00781. PDF